The Dutch gave the name (meaning "Big Island") to this largest island in the Gulf of Carpentaria and although all of it belongs to the local Anindilyakwa people, it is still called by its old Dutch name (but often shortened to "Groot"). Near the Aboriginal community of Angurugu is the large manganese mine that pays royalties to the traditional owners of this land. The ore is shipped from the harbour at Alyangula, a modern town where most non-Aboriginal employees of the mine live. Just east of this town, along the north coast, is Bartalumba Bay, a picturesque coastline and the site of a prawn processing factory.
A road leads from Angurugu, through the centre of the island, to the small Aboriginal community of Umbakumba, nicely situated on the east coast.
The Anindilyakwa speaking clans maintain their traditions and have strong ties with the people on the mainland, in the communities of Numbulwar and Bickerton Island. However, the easy availability of alcohol in Alyangula causes frequent upheavals in Angurugu and Umbakumba.