Byzantine Empire, 1261
The Byzantine Empire was re-established by Michael VIII Palaiologos who had recaptured it from the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Crusaders had founded that state in 1204 after the Fourth Crusade. The arms of the Palaiologos family displays, yellow on red, the Cross of Victory with four firesteels, carbon steel pieces used in fire-making. When struck with a sharp edge of flint, chert or similar rock, sparks fly from it. It is an old Byzantine/Orthodox symbol.