Vatican City, 1929
The colours yellow and white (gold and silver) date from 1808; gold is associated with golden keys, the symbols of St. Peter. Jesus told Peter: ''I will give you the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven'' (Matthew 16:9). The tiara and crossed keys are papal symbols since the 13th Century: Popes hold the office of St. Peter. The present flag dates from 1929 when Vatican City state was set up in Rome.